...Photographs should be protected from extended exposure to intense light sources. Limit exhibition times, control light exposure, and monitor the condition of the photographs carefully. Prolonged or permanent display of photographs is not recommended. Use unbuffered ragboard mats, and frame photographs with archivally sound materials. Use ultraviolet-filtering plexiglass to help protect the photographs during light exposure. Reproduce vulnerable or unique images and display the duplicate image; in this way, the original photograph can be properly stored and preserved.

Disaster preparedness begins by evaluating the storage location and the potential for damage in the event of a fire, flood, or other emergency. It is important to create a disaster preparedness plan that addresses the specific needs of the collection before a disaster occurs.

The location and manner in which photographs are housed can be the first line of defense. Identify photographic materials that are at higher risk of damage or loss. Remove all potentially damaging materials such as paper clips and poor-quality enclosures. Store negatives and prints in separate locations to increase the possibility of an image surviving a catastrophe. If a disaster occurs, protect the collection from damage by covering it with plastic sheeting and/or removing it from the affected area. If using plastic, make sure not to trap in moisture as this could lead to mold growth. Evaluate the situation and document the damage that has occurred. Contact a conservator as soon as possible for assistance and advice on the recovery and repair of damaged materials.

PS .If your photograph requires special attention or you are unsure about how to protect it, you should contact a conservator.To search for a conservator near you.

Cabaret of Spirits ATELIER

Cabaret of Spirits ATELIER

Treatment Options for Photographic Materials may include

mold removal
surface cleaning
stain reduction (only if possible and safe to do so)
tape and adhesive removal
separation from poor quality mounts
consolidation of cracked or flaking emulsion
mending tears or breaks
conservation of cased photographs and case repair
electro-cleansing of tarnished daguerreotypes
rehousing options
four-flap enclosures
clamshell boxes
polyester sleeves
conservation framing


Hundreds of millions of photographs have been lost over the years to natural disasters, wars, and the age-old urge to clean house. So there is something special about every old photograph that's survived. Someone decided to make it... someone else, to buy it... and a lot of someones decided to keep it over the years. Whether you're the caretaker of a treasured family album or a collector who has searched out the classics of photography, it's important to preserve and protect the images you value. Fortunately, there is new information about what to do and what to avoid. And there are specialized products available to help.



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Tuesday, 26 May 2015

Stieglitz, Steichen and Strand

One key indicator of the photogravure process is a fine aquatint grain. This can often be seen with the low magnification of a loupe, although in certain instances a microscope may be necessary.

 photogravure is vastly more stable. Among the medium's other exceptional attributes, there is no doubt permanence was a factor influencing master photographers to invest the time, effort and expense necessary to produce high quality gravures. By the early 20th century, when the photogravure rose to such prominence as a reproduction medium for photographs; the basic components that form the print, oil-based ink and paper, were well understood from the standpoint of stability. Photographers welcomed the promise of durability as they were accustomed to grappling with permanence issues associated with photographic prints. 
Though extremely durable, photogravures are not impervious to damage and gradual deterioration. Every photogravure, rather every intaglio print and most other works on paper, remain especially susceptible to deterioration mechanisms broadly classified under the headings: chemical, physical and biological.

The chemical degradation of paper is most often catalyzed by long-term exposure to elevated relative humidity and light. Moisture from the air interacts with cellulose to break chemical bonds along the polymer chain and to produce acidic deterioration products that then serve to catalyze additional deterioration. 
 With time, these changes are usually manifested in the gradual overall darkening of the paper base and increasing brittleness. 
Exposure to light will have a similar effect caused by the photo oxidation of cellulose and the accumulation of chemical deterioration products. Temperature is a significant variable governing the rate of any chemical reaction, including those catalyzed by moisture and light. 
Over the years, museums and other cultural institutions have developed guidelines to take these factors into account. A common recommendation for museum storage of works on paper is a range of 30% to 50% relative humidity (RH) and temperature not to exceed 68°F (20°C). 
As damage caused by light is mainly due to duration of exposure and intensity, most institutions will limit light levels to 5-9 foot-candles (54 -97 lux) and rotate exhibitions of works on paper on and off display after several months. 
Housing materials, such as mats, interleaving papers, frame backings and boxes can greatly assist or undermine the preservation of photogravures. Paper-based enclosures should be lignin-free (lignin is an acidic resin found in wood) and composed of cotton fiber ("rag") or highly purified wood pulp.
 The addition of an alkaline buffer to paper enclosures is recommended to help counteract acid-based deterioration. The importance of good quality interleaving paper for intaglio prints in storage is essential as the linseed oil ink medium used for these prints can be fairly acidic and cause localized staining among stacked prints. Plastic sleeves, used in addition to or as an alternative to paper enclosures, should be composed of chemically inert materials such as polyester, polypropylene or polyethylene. 
Plastic sleeves of unknown composition should be discarded. Whenever possible, handling should be limited to the print enclosure as finger oils can cause staining over time and embed surface dirt.
 If prints do require direct handling, the use of white cotton gloves is recommended. 
On display, frames should incorporate a glazing material that filters for ultraviolet. 
These higher energy wavelengths (relative to visible light) catalyze proportionally greater degrees of deterioration. 
Good quality housing materials, including frames, museum cases and other storage boxes also can significantly reduce the impact of fluctuations in relatively humidity. This attribute can be a significant benefit to the private collector that is unequipped to maintain a constant level of moderate relative humidity. 

 typically refers to problems such as tears, folds and distortions. In most cases, tears and folds are the result of careless handling. In general, prints without mats should be handled using a rigid secondary support, such as a piece of good quality mat board.
 Distortions, either local wrinkles or overall warping and buckling, can be the result of improper storage materials, but also due to fluctuations in relative humidity. Paper expands and contracts in response to moisture content in the air. Adhesion of a photogravure to a secondary support can restrict these dimensional changes and cause severe local distortions. 
These distortions are very common in Camera Work and other photogravures where adhesive is placed in a small area behind each of the four corners of the print. 

In photogravure the etching of the image takes place in one step, the depth of the etching around the aquatint grains being proportional to the depth of the gelatin relief image on the surface of the printing plate. This produces a final print with a smooth gradation of image tones.

by flora and fauna. Paper can be a very inviting material for all manner of insect and rodents. 
Preventing such infestations usually centers on creating as inhospitable of an environment as possible by keeping storage areas clean and free of moisture and food. Possibly of greater concern for the collector, various species fungi can exploit trace inorganic components in paper to sustain their metabolism. 
Such interactions can eventually cause local red/brown stains to develop on paper commonly referred to as "foxing." Again, the key to prevention is maintaining cool, dry, conditions as fungal growth accelerates as temperature increases and at humidity levels consistently above 60%. 

 have been studied in depth by paper conservators and conservation scientists resulting in a great deal of literature from which research additional preservation guidelines and best practices can be distilled. 
From this work, numerous paper conservation treatments have emerged for stabilizing the condition of prints. For staining caused by chemical and biological deterioration, when washing in deionized water, may be extremely useful to stabilize the condition of the print and reduce stains. For greater stain reduction, bleaching treatments can be effective; though these treatments need to be applied judiciously as there is a risk of causing additional deterioration. An alkaline reserve, such as calcium carbonate, can be applied to the paper to slow the rate of acid-based deterioration. Physical deterioration like tears can be stabilized through the application of fine strips of Japanese paper to the reverse of prints, generally using adhesives like wheat starch paste and/or methylcellulose. Distortions can be reduced by imparting moisture to the paper then gradually drying between smooth blotters, under weights. Intrinsically, good quality materials used to make most photogravures is a tremendous advantage, if conservation treatment is necessary.
 For most paper conservators, the techniques and materials used to treate photogravures are relatively conventional and time-tested. However, conservation treatment should never be approached casually and should be carried out by an experienced professional.