...Photographs should be protected from extended exposure to intense light sources. Limit exhibition times, control light exposure, and monitor the condition of the photographs carefully. Prolonged or permanent display of photographs is not recommended. Use unbuffered ragboard mats, and frame photographs with archivally sound materials. Use ultraviolet-filtering plexiglass to help protect the photographs during light exposure. Reproduce vulnerable or unique images and display the duplicate image; in this way, the original photograph can be properly stored and preserved.

Disaster preparedness begins by evaluating the storage location and the potential for damage in the event of a fire, flood, or other emergency. It is important to create a disaster preparedness plan that addresses the specific needs of the collection before a disaster occurs.

The location and manner in which photographs are housed can be the first line of defense. Identify photographic materials that are at higher risk of damage or loss. Remove all potentially damaging materials such as paper clips and poor-quality enclosures. Store negatives and prints in separate locations to increase the possibility of an image surviving a catastrophe. If a disaster occurs, protect the collection from damage by covering it with plastic sheeting and/or removing it from the affected area. If using plastic, make sure not to trap in moisture as this could lead to mold growth. Evaluate the situation and document the damage that has occurred. Contact a conservator as soon as possible for assistance and advice on the recovery and repair of damaged materials.

PS .If your photograph requires special attention or you are unsure about how to protect it, you should contact a conservator.To search for a conservator near you.

Cabaret of Spirits ATELIER

Cabaret of Spirits ATELIER

Treatment Options for Photographic Materials may include

mold removal
surface cleaning
stain reduction (only if possible and safe to do so)
tape and adhesive removal
separation from poor quality mounts
consolidation of cracked or flaking emulsion
mending tears or breaks
conservation of cased photographs and case repair
electro-cleansing of tarnished daguerreotypes
rehousing options
four-flap enclosures
clamshell boxes
polyester sleeves
conservation framing


Hundreds of millions of photographs have been lost over the years to natural disasters, wars, and the age-old urge to clean house. So there is something special about every old photograph that's survived. Someone decided to make it... someone else, to buy it... and a lot of someones decided to keep it over the years. Whether you're the caretaker of a treasured family album or a collector who has searched out the classics of photography, it's important to preserve and protect the images you value. Fortunately, there is new information about what to do and what to avoid. And there are specialized products available to help.



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~ *~ It all starts as a photographer... the path leads me to specialized in the conservation & application of fine art and historic photographs and restoration of paper ... working in my Boudoir, CABARETøf SPIRITS ~ *~

Archive you missed the past months

Saturday, 15 April 2017

bitumen of Judea

In 1925, L. R Clerc wrote: “the only technique used at the start of photoengraving, Syrian bitumen, called judean (asphalt), has gradually been abandoned in favour of bichromate albumin. This later technique obtains the same results but takes much less time”. Bitumen does not seem to have been used in photomechanical processes after 1930.
The screening of printing plates engraved with photographs was one of the major advances to have been made among the various improvements to the asphalt technique invented by Niépce as applied to plate-making for printing. Thick varnish was no longer necessary to reproduce varying shades of darkness. Instead, the denseness of points did the work. This meant that the varnish could be very thin and consequently exposure time was reduced. By working on selecting different qualities of bitumen, on their purification, and on their enrichment with sulphur, their light sensitivity was considerably increased, resulting in the kind of rapid treatment needed for industrial production. This was not true of Niépce’s heliograph.
All this research gave birth to photoengraving and Niépce is undoubtedly its inventor.
After the Gaïacum resin, Niépce used another resin, consisting of mineral: asphalt or bitumen of Judea. He demonstrated that under light action this resin became non-soluble with his usual solvent.
From 1822 on, he succeeded in reproducing drawings put in contact with bitumen coated bases (glass plates, calcareous stones, then copper or tin plates). Afterwards, he used the aqua fortis process to etch the images made with acid, which were then printed on paper. This process was to remain for quite a while the base of photoengraving used to print photos and graphical documents.

Wednesday, 5 April 2017

sea/son ... the SEASON

,,, thousands of projects in many contexts,
In these Easter cleaning between books magazines and papers photographs would
deepen a technique photography much used but little known ...
" Silver gelatin DOP "

Silver gelatin DOP is based on the light sensitivity of silver halides, which are suspended in a gelatin binder on a baryta paper support. DOPs made their first appearance in the mid 1880s and became the dominate printing process of the twentieth century. Due to the complexity of the process, silver gelatin papers have always been a manufactured product. As chemists’ understanding of silver halide chemistry increased over time, papers could be manufactured with a variety of characteristics, including varying light sensitivities, speeds, and tonal ranges. Papers were also produced with a variety of surface sheens, textures, paper thickness and paper tints. Optical brightening agents were introduced to papers beginning in the 1960s, which serve to make the highlights brighter providing papers with more contrast.
"Silver gelatin DOPs have a paper support. Most prints made before 1970 have fiber-based paper supports of varying paper weights. The standard weights are described by manufacturers in different ways including: heavy, medium, and light weight; single-weight, double weight, lightweight, extra thin. Water-resistant papers coated with cellulose acetate were made before the late 1960s. These papers were used in photo booths, as ID pictures, and for printing map reproductions, among other things that required fast processing. In the late 1960s papers coated with polyethylene, called resin-coated (RC) papers, were introduced. RC papers are coated on the back with clear polyethylene and on the front, directly below the emulsion, with pigmented polyethylene and are easily identified by their smooth plastic back. Specialty metallic papers were marketed until the 1970s. These have a special surface that give the print a metallic appearance". 
Significant advancements were made throughout the twentieth century to silver gelatin emulsion making for both negative and print materials. During manufacturing of the emulsion, silver nitrate is combined with a halide (usually a combination of bromide and chloride, though silver iodide papers were also made) in the presence of gelatin with an excess of halide present. The gelatin slows the formation of the crystals allowing for smaller, more uniform crystals to form and react with impurities (sulfur) in the gelatin, all of which make the silver halide crystals more light sensitive. The emulsion is then heated in a process called Ostwald Ripening which increases silver halide sensitivity and creates more uniform silver halide crystals. The next step is to remove impurities from the gelatin. Initially emulsions were shredded into noodles, washed to remove impurities, and then heated and re-melted. Later emulsion making required a complicated procedure of flocculation which required altering the pH of the emulsion causing the silver halides to precipitate out. The silver halides were washed and dispersed back into the emulsion. Another way of extracting impurities is through reverse osmosis through a thin membrane. Finally additional sensitizing chemicals and other additives are added. Gelatin is the perfect binder for silver halide crystals; it has the ability to swell allowing the penetration of processing solutions, but is tough and resistant to abrasions when dry. The gelatin emulsion was then machine coated onto a baryta paper support.
 A final thin layer of hardened gelatin was applied to act as a protective layer called an overcoat, also called a supercoat or topcoat.
DOPs can be contact printed or printed by enlargement through a negative. During exposure, a latent image is formed where light strikes the paper. Development reduces the silver ions in the latent image to visible silver particles in an oxidation-reduction reaction. Development is followed by a stop bath, which halts development and keeps the following fixing bath from being contaminated with developing solution. Next, unexposed silver halides are removed in a fixing solution, usually sodium thiosulfate, which dissolves silver halide crystals into a water soluble compound. Finally the print is washed thoroughly to remove residual processing chemicals and by products produced during fixing.

Photographers may choose to tone prints to alter the image color and/or to increase the stability of the print. Popular toners include gold, polysulfides, and selenium or a combination of sulfide and selenium.  Gold toning replaces part of the silver image with a more noble metal (gold). Gold toning usually produces a cooler neutral image tone of blue-black. Selenium and sulfide toners create a compound with silver that is more stable than silver alone. Image tones generally range from sepia, brown, purple, and purple-brown. This can be done by indirect toning in which after fixing the silver image is bleached and then immersed in the toning solution. The sulfide solution reacts with the silver halides to form silver sulfide. Direct toning does not require bleaching. Dye toning converts the silver image to a dye mordant that attracts dye from a dye solution. Finally, metal ferricyanide toning converts the silver image into silver ferricyanide complex which is then converted to a ferricyanide salt of a different metal (iron, copper, uranium). Dye toning and metal ferricyanide toning can result in a diverse rainbow of image colors.

Sunday, 8 January 2017

NEW YEAR'S EVE ... dressed to PARTY ... in dress code

The Sick Rose is a visual tour through the golden age of medical illustration. The nineteenth century experienced an explosion of epidemics such as cholera and diphtheria, driven by industrialization, urbanization and poor hygiene. In this pre-color-photography era, accurate images were relied upon to teach students and aid diagnosis. The best examples, featured here, are remarkable pieces of art that attempted to elucidate the mysteries of the body, and the successive onset of each affliction. Bizarre and captivating images, including close-up details and revealing cross-sections, make all too clear the fascinations of both doctors and artists of the time. Barnett illuminates the fears and obsessions of a society gripped by disease, yet slowly coming to understand and combat it. The age also saw the acceptance of vaccination and the germ theory, and notable diagrams that transformed public health, such as John Snow’s cholera map and Florence Nightingale’s pioneering histograms, are included and explained. Organized by disease, The Sick Rose ranges from little-known ailments now all but forgotten to the epidemics that shaped the modern age. It is a fascinating Wunderkammer of a book that will enthrall artists, students, designers, scientists and the incurably curious everywhere.

Saturday, 24 December 2016

Monday, 12 December 2016

deepening-Before Xmas

Direct carbon is commonly known as the Fresson process. It is based on the light sensitivity of chromium salts suspended in a pigmented colloid (usually gelatin) known as a dichromated colloid.
The carbon process became commercially popular in the 1860s. A sheet of pigmented dichromated gelatin was printed in contact with a negative. During exposure the gelatin hardened in proportion to the amount of light it received. The unexposed gelatin remained soluble and was washed away resulting in an image. The process was cumbersome requiring the gelatin tissue to be transferred before development (single transfer). The mid-tone areas were partially hardened from the top down so that the soluble gelatin was under the hardened gelatin. Transferring the tissue to another support allowed the soluble gelatin to be on top so that a full tonal range could be obtained. Sometimes the tissue was transferred again (double transfer) so that the image would be right-reading. If the tissue was not transferred before development, the image would lack mid-tones resulting in a blocky, contrasty image.
Beginning in the 1890s several attempts were made to introduce direct carbon papers that did not require transfer but still gave good mid-tones. The first moderately successful paper was Charbon-Velor by Victor Artigue in 1893. The process was initially introduced by his father, Frederic, who died before perfecting the process. It was developed using a slurry of sawdust and water in which the friction of the sawdust helped remove the soluble gelatin. While it was available in three colors, black, blue, and sanguine, it was found that only the black gave good though inconsistent results. The specifications of the process remained proprietary. Thédore-Henri Fresson introduced Charbon-Satin paper around 1900 as an improvement to the Artique process. Fresson also did not take out patents on his process, but rather maintained a high level of secrecy surrounding the manufacturing details so that the process remains proprietary even today.
Fresson direct carbon paper was commercially available in Europe from about 1900 until WWII and in American from 1927 to 1939 through the distributor M. Alenius. The paper consisted of pre-coated, unsensitized paper that came with a packet of sawdust. It was available in several different colors, textures, base tints and paper weights. After WWII the Fresson family operated as an Atelier and only printed Fresson direct carbon for individual artists and continue to do so today.
Four color Fresson, called Quadrichromie Fresson, was introduced in 1951 by Pierre Fresson, the son of Thédore-Henri. It is an assembly processes in which cyan, yellow, magenta, and black images are layered to form a full color image.
Only the Fresson family held the proprietary secret to the process until 1966 when Pierre sold the secret to the Spanish photographer José Ortiz Echagüe with the stipulation that it not be called Fresson and that Ortiz not share the secret. Ortiz called his prints Carbondir. Evidently the rest of the Fresson family was not aware of this agreement until the 1970s when Louis Nadeau began negotiations with Ortiz or acquire the process. Nadeau acquired the process in 1979 just before Ortiz’s death and continues to operate in New Brunswick, Canada.

in a short-time new dates ...

Monday, 14 November 2016

scent of husks of dried Quince ✦

at Marsh’s Library

The restoration of watercolour paintings is a particularly delicate process as paintings are often completed on fragile paper, leaving them susceptible to tears and punctures. As such, we work with care and precision to ensure all restorations are completed to the highest possible standards.
  • Watercolour paintings are often very detailed and created using specific techniques, requiring the attention of only the most experienced fine art restorers.
  •  I restored many delicate and valuable watercolour paintings to their original condition.
  • We can collect your painting and complete the restoration on or off-site, depending on your specific requirements.
Watercolour restoration often involves the treatment and removal of foxing and mould spores from the delicate surface of the paper.